Category Archives: East Africa

Somalia – US general wants more authority for US forces to act against Al Shabaab and Al Qaeda


WASHINGTON The head of U.S. forces in Africa told reporters on Friday that greater authority to fight al Qaeda-linked al Shabaab militants in Somalia would lead to more flexibility and quicker targeting, but that a decision had not yet been made by the White House.

Al Shabaab has been able to carry out deadly bombings despite losing most of its territory to African Union peacekeepers supporting the Somali government.

The United States has a small presence in Somalia and is allowed to carry out strikes in defence of partnered forces.

“Regardless of what combatant commander was sitting here this afternoon, I think they would all tell you that it is very important and very helpful for us to have a little bit more flexibility, a little bit more timeliness in terms of decision-making process and … it will allow us to prosecute targets in a more rapid fashion,” Marine General Thomas Waldhauser, the top U.S. military commander overseeing troops in Africa, said at a press conference.

Critics of former President Barack Obama’s administration said that it took too long for Washington to approve strikes against militants when they surfaced, allowing some to escape.

Obama’s supporters, however, said greater scrutiny of U.S. military power helped reduce civilian casualties and the risk of “mission creep.”

Waldhauser also said there was no need to “sound the alarm” about a potential resurgence of piracy off Somalia’s coast after pirates seized a small oil tanker, the first such incident since 2012.

“It is too early to say that now we have an epidemic, but it did catch our attention,” Waldhauser said.

In their heyday in 2011, Somali pirates launched 237 attacks off the coast of Somalia, data from the International Maritime Bureau showed, and held hundreds of hostages.

Separately, Waldhauser said the United States had severely weakened the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), a Ugandan rebellion group, but had not been able to capture its leader Joseph Kony.

A regional task force, including U.S. troops, has been hunting the down the group.

“This thing is coming to an end to be very frank … We think that we have a plan in place for a steady state, sustainable transition that will not only look out for Kony or any other groups that would emerge in that part of the country,” Waldhauser said.

(Reporting by Idrees Ali and Phil Stewart.; Editing by James Dalgleish)

Kenya – NASA committee says it’s Raila or lose

Star (Kenya)

It is Raila or lose, NASA committee warns principals

Mar. 24,  12:45 am

The technical committee tasked with recommending NASA’s presidential candidate has emphatically said it must be Raila Odinga.

The committee warned that excluding the ODM leader and former Prime Minister would outrage his supporters and convert intact opposition bastions into battlegrounds with Jubilee.

According to five top academics, Raila remains the most formidable candidate and his stepping aside will not translate into automatic votes for any NASA principal.

The confidential recommendation has been presented to the National Coordinating Committee, NASA’s political wing. The NCC will deliberate and make recommendations to the principals — Raila, Kalonzo Musyoka (Wiper), Musalia Mudavadi (ANC) and Moses Wetang’ula (Ford Kenya).

The committee includes economist Dr David Ndii, Nairobi University professor Dr Adams Oloo, Kabarak University law professor Elisha Ongoya, former member of the defunct Constitution of Kenya Review Commission Abubakar Zein and ex-Mumias Sugar Company chairman Dan Ameyo.

Despite the technocrats’ unqualified verdict, Kalonzo’s Wiper insists it is their turn to run for President, citing a 2013 MoU with Raila’s ODM. It made Raila a one-term President who would support Kalonzo in 2017.

Either Kalonzo is the candidate or Wiper is out and “NASA is dead,” it says.

Comment: Raila Odinga’s is still a name to conjure with

This dispute threatens NASA unity and it is not clear how the opposition will navigate the growing discord, with only four months to the August 8 polls.

Today, the four principals are to stage a rally at Masinde grounds in Nairobi’s Mathare area.

This would be NASA’s first rally in Nairobi, the country’s political epicentre, since the coalition was officially formed on February 23.

NASA’s steering committee said, “A major announcement is to be made that will significantly change the country’s political landscape. All citizens of goodwill, yearning for change and aspiring for Kenya’s prosperity, are invited to attend.”

Sources familiar with NASA negotiations told the Star the technical team’s analysis indicates that if Raila is not the flagbearer, nearly all ODM turf becomes swing-vote areas.

This means Jubilee’s candidate, President Uhuru Kenyatta — and by extension other JP candidates — could harvest much more in perceived opposition areas thought to be under lock and key.

These include Coast, Western, Kisii and Luo Nyanza.

The analysis says only a Raila-led NASA will retain opposition strongholds and secure considerable votes in Jubilee zones of Central, Eastern and Rift Valley.

The analysis is based on results of the two previous elections, parties’ presence in various regions and voter registration.

In 2007, Raila beat Kalonzo by a huge margin in Western, despite both having running mates from the same region.

Raila won 415,705 votes in Western against Kalonzo’s 25,581.

Kalonzo choseJulia Ojiambo as his deputy, Raila chose Mudavadi.

In 2013, Raila thrashed Mudavadi in Central Kenya, despite the ex-Deputy PM having a running mate from Mount Kenya. Mudavadi teamed up with former Ndaragwa MP Jeremiah Kioni. Raila scored 2,889 votes in Kioni’s Nyandarua backyard, compared with Mudavadi’s 498.

Political analyst Kazungu Katana yesterday disagreed, however, with the analyses, while emphasising Raila remains the Coast’s choice.

“In my understanding, the presidential candidate in the Coast region is Raila. And if he says today I am standing down for so and so, I can assure you the greatest majority will vote for the candidate. Of course, there will be pockets of protest,” Kazungu told the Star.

Kalonzo and Mudavadi allies cite the Raila-phobia in Central Kenya as a major reason they are the best to penetrate Jubilee turf.

In a controversial commentary that irked Raila handlers, Wiper’s Kitui Senate aspirant said if Raila is NASA’S candidate, Uhuru’s second term is guaranteed.

“A Kalonzo presidency is good for every community in this country, including constituencies that largely align with the other side of the political divide,” Enoch Wambua, former managing editor of The Standard, wrote on March 12.

“He [Raila] can also choose to bulldoze his way to the NASA presidential candidate and hand UhuRuto clear victory.”

The former PM still has some loyal foot soldiers among the Kalenjin, despite the haemorrhage triggered by William Ruto’s exit from ODM.

Recently, NASA caused a stir in Meru with massive rallies and Raila’s grassroots networks are credited.

“Negotiations [on the presidential ticket] are ongoing. The committee have returned their verdict. Their analysis forms an important part of negotiations,” our source said.

In 2013, ODM had two MPs from Meru: Tigania East’s Mpuru Aburi and Igembe Central’s Cyprian Kubai.

Last week, Wiper shook NASA by declaring Kalonzo must be the candidate — nonnegotiable

National Assembly minority leader Francis Nyenze, who sits in the powerful 12-member NCC, said it was imperative to implement the 2013 Raila-Kalonzo MoU.

“The reason there’s a stalemate is because the MoU wasn’t honoured and Cord was killed so we don’t raise that issue. NASA came into being and when I asked about it [MoU] in the committee, I was told all those MoUs and agreements were buried in Cord,” Nyenze told the Star.

An Infotrak poll showed Raila has 68.3 per cent support among NASA followers.

Kalonzo came second with 13.1 per cent, Musalia third with 12.3 per cent, Wetang’ula at 2.2 per cent.


Kenya – hacker stole nearly $40m from tax authorities

Al Jazeera

IT expert Alex Mutuku charged with hacking into the country’s tax authority, Kenyan media reports say.

23 Mar 2017 07:01 GMT

Mutuku is accused of electronic fraud but denies any wrongdoing [File: Reuters]
Mutuku is accused of electronic fraud but denies any wrongdoing [File: Reuters]

Kenyan authorities have charged an IT expert with hacking into the country’s tax authority and stealing almost $40m, according to local media.

Alex Mutunga Mutuku, 28, is accused of belonging to a syndicate of electronic fraudsters who steal money from various institutions and companies in the East African nation, The Standard newspaper reported.

“The information we have is just a tip of the iceberg. The racket is big and involves people outside the country,” Edwin Okello, the state prosecutor, was quoted as saying on Wednesday.

Mutuku, who pleaded not guilty, allegedly hacked into the Kenya Revenue Authority’s computer systems over the past two years.

The suspect, who routinely posted his lavish lifestyle on social media, was known to authorities and was arrested in 2015 on suspicion of hacking into the country’s biggest telephone network provider, Safaricom, and stealing airtime worth $150, according to The Daily Nation newspaper.

Mutuku was accused in 2014 of hacking into the system of a local bank, the paper said.

The trial is scheduled to continue on March 28.

Source: Al Jazeera and news agencies



Alex Mutunga Mutuku, Kenya's IT expert accused of massive electronic fraudDaily Nation   Alex Mutuku’s lawyers want him to be released on bail

An IT expert has been charged with hacking into Kenya’s Revenue Authority and stealing $39m (£31m).

Alex Mutungi Mutuku, 28, is accused of electronic fraud but he denies any wrongdoing.

The prosecution says he is part of an international network stealing money from several state bodies.

The government says there is a ring involving expatriates from the United States and other countries, along with police officers and civil servants.

A thorough background check on state employees is now being conducted, government spokesperson Eric Kiraithe told the BBC.

Other state agencies affected by the alleged hacking include the e-citizen online payment portal where users pay for government services.

Mr Mutuku was arrested after police conducted an operation following a tip-off that institutions were losing money.

A lawyer for Mr Mutuku, Tacey Makori, has asked for him to be released, arguing that police had failed to show enough evidence to warrant an extended detention.

‘Tip of the iceberg’

He is being held while anti-cybercrime officers dig deeper into what they believe is an elaborate fraud scheme with international connections.

It allegedly involves hackers with access to high-tech equipment and software which enabled them to steal from corporations, Kenya’s Standard newspaper reports.

“It is a case of remote control hacking where the suspects operate smoothly with their machines and the next minute you realise you have no money in your account,” state prosecutor Edwin Okello is quoted by the newspaper as saying.

“The information we have is just a tip of the iceberg. The racket is big and involves people outside the country.”

The cybercrime unit says Kenya lost $165m (£132m) through hacking in 2016.

Earlier this month, several people including foreign nationals were arrested in Nairobi over their involvement in theft of funds through hacking.

Ten suspects have so far been charged in court.

Kenya – Kenyatta accuses Raila of being at centre of 2007-8 violence

Rank hypocrisy for someone indicted on charges of crimes against humanity relating to the 2007-8 violence (but not tried because witnesses withdrew or disappeared) to now, for purely electoral reasons, accuse the opposition leader.  If he believes it, why did he not say it sometime in the last nine years or take action as president against someone  he now claims was at the centre of the violence. KS


Kenyan News


President Uhuru Kenyatta has accused opposition leader Raila Odinga of promoting hatred and incitement that led to the 2007-2008 violence.

He said Raila was at the heart of the violence that rocked Kenya following the 2007 elections as he had promoted politics of tribal antagonism.

President Kenyatta accused the opposition leader of using the same type of politics in the run up to the August polls.

“He was the one who ignited the flames that set Kenya on fire in 2007 when he promoted the politics of what he called 40 tribes against one. Now, he is talking about 40 against 2,” said the President as he dismissed the unfounded claims that the Jubilee Government has excluded some communities in government.

President Kenyatta said Raila pushed the blame to Deputy President William Ruto even though the opposition leader was at the heart of the incitement that led to the killings and destruction nearly 10 years ago.

The President also accused Raila and his brand of politics for making Kenya lose 25 years of development.

“We need to catch up and fill the 25-year gap this country lost due to negative politics,” said the President when he spoke during a leader’s meeting at Nyanturo grounds in Kisii County.

He said Kenya would have been at the same level with the economies of Asian Tigers were it not for the 25 years of bad politics fronted by some leaders, including Rail.

The President said the Jubilee administration was making huge strides in development because they have discarded the old style of governance that was marked by bad politics.

He said the opposition was in a state of denial over Jubilee’s development record because they have are used to doing nothing for the people.

“They are part of the lost years when politics and government yielded nothing for the people,’’ he said. ‘’Jubilee is different.’’

He said the development challenges Kenya has faced are not as result of lack of money, but because of divisive politics.

President Kenyatta made the comments after speaking to Abagusii leaders in a meeting where he laid out plans to improve infrastructure in Kisii and Nyamira counties.

He asked Kenyans to embrace unity and reject those who continue using the politics of division.

“Let us ensure we do not slide back into problems. Do not let anyone tell you that Kenyans cannot forgive each other,” said the President.

He urged the people of the region to work with the Jubilee Government for transformational change.

The President said he was confident that the Jubilee team will defeat the opposition in the upcoming polls.

He said he won the Presidency in 2013 when he was not even in Government against the incumbent Prime Minister and Vice President.

“If we defeated them easily the last time when they were big people in Government, we will defeat them easily again this time round,” said the President.

Deputy President William Ruto announced that the Jubilee Party will make a very strong bid to win the Kisii gubernatorial seat.

He said he has already got an assurance from Kisii Deputy Governor Joseph Maangi that he will support Kisii Senator Chris Obure to win the Governor’s seat. Maangi confirmed that he will be Obure’s deputy.

Obure, who spoke at the meeting, said he decamped to Jubilee because he has realised that the opposition was all talk, but no interest in the people.

“I was on the other side, but i realised it was all empty talk. I have joined Jubilee so that the people of Kisii can be part of Kenya’s transformation,” said Obure.

Other leaders who attended the meeting included MPs Joel Onyancha, Jimmy Angqenyi, Mary Otara, Stehpen Manoti, Elijah Moindi, Zebedeo Opore and the members of the Abagusii council of elders.


Somaliland drought a nightmare and security threat

Star (Kenya)

Mar. 22, 2017, 6:00 pm
An internally displaced Somali man rests as he flees from drought stricken regions in Lower Shabelle region before entering makeshift camps in Somalia’s capital Mogadishu, March 17, 2017. /REUTERS

Prolonged drought in Somaliland has killed between 65 and 80 per cent of the semi-autonomous region’s livestock, creating conditions that are “the worst time in our lives” and could threaten regional security, says the region’s environment minister.

With 70 per cent of Somaliland’s economy built around livestock, “you can imagine the desperation of the people, the desperation of the government,” said Shukri Ismail Bandare, the minister of rural development and environment.

“Pastoralists say this is the worst we have seen, a kind of nightmare,” she said. “They have 400 or 500 goats and then just 20 left. They have lost practically everything. I don’t know how they are still sane.”

Previous droughts have hit one area of Somaliland, but “now it’s five regions of the country. We’ve never seen it before”, she said in a telephone interview from Hargeisa, the capital, with the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

Across the Horn of Africa, millions have been hit by severe El Nino-related drought. In Somalia, 5.5 million people need assistance to survive over the next six months, UN Secretary General António Guterres said earlier this month.

Somaliland, a northern region of Somalia that operates autonomously after declaring independence, says it faces a particularly difficult time as its political status – it is not recognised as an independent nation – makes accessing aid more difficult.

“We are not getting bilateral or multilateral funds because we are not recognised,” Bandare said. “We are just working with the resources we have. It’s a drop in the ocean.”

Some “low” levels of international assistance are arriving, she said, but worsening drought has led to widespread migration in Somaliland, with herders flocking to the few remaining places with water.

Those villages and cities in turn are now overwhelmed by “thousands and thousands” of migrants, the minister said. “What they have is practically exhausted because of the pressure,” she said.

Read: World has months to stop starvation in Yemen, Somalia – Red Cross

Security risks

Experts fear growing migration and other social and financial stresses in Somaliland could undermine its role in preventing the spread of Islamic militant groups in the Horn of Africa.

“The displacement and dislocation due to the drought is not only a humanitarian disaster but threatens the social fabric of society,” said Michael Higgins of Independent Diplomat, a non-profit advisory group that works with Somaliland’s government to improve its diplomatic efforts.

That “could in turn disrupt security in the entire Horn of Africa region where Somaliland is acting as a buffer and bulwark against Islamic militants such as al Shabaab,” Higgins said.

Bandare said her government had little money to spend on emergency aid.

“Our resources are limited,” the minister said. “We spend a lot of money on peace and security because there are so many dynamics surrounding this country.”

Fortunately, “a lot of people understand the situation we are in, so we are optimistic” about receiving help, she said.

The drought already has forced Somaliland’s government to use money it had allocated for infrastructure and development spend on relief food and water, Bandare said.

“We were in a development stage, doing all kinds of infrastructure and really taking the country forward,” she said. “But now we are in an emergency.”

No water, no grazing

Poor rains since last year have left much of the semi-arid region’s grazing land barren. The country has virtually no irrigation, and no rivers or streams, Bandare said.

“The situation is getting worse by the day. It’s affected thousands and thousands of people,” she said. “And it affects our economy as a nation. The backbone of our economy was livestock.”

She said that climate change means that “drought is now coming every other year or every three years” in the region. “You can imagine the weight it has on our economy,” she said. “There’s no time to recover.”

Deforestation and widespread soil erosion have also contributed to the country’s rainfall problems, she said, noting that rain often now comes either all at once – producing floods – or not at all.

Efforts to harvest and store rainwater in Somaliland, including through a new African Water Facility project, are still in early stages, Bandare said.

Traditionally, spring rains have arrived the last week of March, but in many recent years they have come in late April. With a growing number of families now without access to water or food, delayed rains could mean a surge in loss of life, she said.

“If it doesn’t rain then we are in big, big trouble. Almost two million people are suffering now. Can you imagine if it affects the whole country” of 4.5 million, she asked.

Kenya – Mudavadi cagey as NASA talks stall

Daily Nation

Wednesday March 22 2017


Confusion reigned in the National Super Alliance (Nasa) opposition coalition on Tuesday as an important meeting scheduled by its principals failed to take place without an explanation.

Various sources in Nasa said the meeting could not take place in the absence of co-principals Kalonzo Musyoka (Wiper Democratic Movement) and Moses Wetang’ula (Ford-Kenya).

Mr Musyoka had told his colleagues immediately after the Kitengela rally on Sunday that he would fly to Dubai to attend a convention the following day and was expected back in the country today in time for the opposition rally scheduled for Friday in Nairobi.

Surprisingly, Mr Musyoka flew to Dubai only last night for “a short business” and was expected back on Thursday.


Mr Wetang’ula, it was understood, informed his co-principals Raila Odinga (ODM) and Musalia Mudavadi (Amani National Congress, ANC) that he would be attending the ongoing Legislative Summit on devolution in Mombasa.


On Tuesday, Mr Mudavadi, who was economical with details about the developments in Nasa, said the meeting would not take place due to engagements by key members of the coalition.

“Today (Tuesday), it is only the National Co-ordinating Committee that is meeting,” said Mr Mudavadi as he declined to respond to other questions. “We trust they will find the way forward as soon as possible.”

Mr Odinga, who had jetted back to the country from the US, was reportedly taking a rest at home. He was expected to preside over a youth convention by his party at Orange House but skipped the event, which had been billed by the ODM secretariat as “the biggest gathering of ODM youth aspirants” from all parts of the country.


The same invite to the youth event had indicated that the former Prime Minister was to meet Mr Mudavadi, Mr Musyoka and Mr Wetang’ula later in the day.
None of the meetings took place.

The co-ordinating committee, chaired by Senators James Orengo (Siaya, ODM) and Johnson Muthama (Machakos, Wiper) and has Members of Parliament Dr Eseli Simiyu (Tongaren, Ford-K) and John Bunyasi (Nambale, UDF) had faced challenges accomplishing their mandate due to hardline positions by some of the members.

The committee has, however, since made progress and was expected to conclude its work and hand over their report to the principals.

“It wasn’t going to be easy to convene a meeting when many of the principals were engaged elsewhere,” said Mr Odinga’s spokesman Dennis Onyango.

A Nasa rally that was planned in the city today also fell victim to the confusion and will now be held on Friday.

The co-ordinating committee has come up with various options for picking the joint presidential candidate for the coalition.

Sources say two main options would be used with majority of the members favouring consensus or a constituted electoral college.

The first option would see the four agreeing among themselves but, if they failed, the electoral college would be constituted to elect the candidate.

A technical committee whose members include Mr Dan Ameyo, Dr Adams Oloo, Mr Zein Abubakar and Mr Elisha Ongonya has presented the options to the co-ordinating committee.

The committee is also working on a secretariat that will steer its operations and run its affairs. Mr Norman Magaya has been temporarily retained as the Chief Executive Officer of the presidential secretariat.

“We are working on the technical team that will be unveiled to the public at the right time,” said Mr Orengo.

On Tuesday, it emerged that all was not well in the Nasa house with a section of leaders blaming their colleagues for leaking information from the proceedings of the co-ordinating committee in a bid to influence the choice of the presidential candidate.

The matter, it was understood, will be raised at the principals meeting to ensure that leaders who issue statements on the proceedings are stopped.

“Leaking of information is very dangerous because it is creating a particular perception in the minds of our supporters, a fact that is very dangerous,” said a source close to the principals. “Some people are leaking information on the working documents and they don’t realise what that is doing to the principals.”

Has the tide turned for South Africa’s rhino poaching crisis?

Talking Humanities

Prof Keith Somerville

Image: White rhino in Hluhluwe-Imfolozi Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

South Africa’s long-awaited statistical report on rhino poaching reveal a 10.3 per cent dip in the numbers illegally killed in 2016 compared to the previous year. However, the picture is far from straightforward, explains Professor Keith Somerville.  

On 27 February the South African Ministry for Environmental Affairs released the long-awaited rhino poaching statistics, which showed that nationally 121 less animals were poached in 2016 (1,054) compared with 2015 (1,175). But the figures also indicated what many feared, that there had been an increase in illegal killing for horn in areas outside Kruger National Park. 

Although the 2016 decline is to be welcomed, it still represents more than 5 per cent of South Africa’s total rhino population of around 20,000. The rise in poaching outside Kruger is a cause for great concern, as it suggests that poaching networks are spreading their operations across the country, and growing in sophistication and flexibility, as demand from Vietnam, China and other countries in East Asia shows no sign of falling.

Rhino poaching in South Africa

One problem is the diffuse nature of the poaching gangs. They include Mozambicans brought into the country and paid to poach – they are often armed with high-powered rifles imported for the Mozambican security forces and wildlife department that have been corruptly diverted to poaching gangs. But much of the poaching in South Africa involves gangs of Afrikaners, which include former vets, wildlife rangers, helicopter pilots, professional hunters and game farm owners.

A very worrying element in this complex web, is the suspected involvement of senior ANC members and even government ministers with known poachers. Recently state security minister David Mahlobo, was found to have close links with a self-confessed rhino horn smuggler, massage parlour owner and businessman, Guan Jiang Guang.  Mahlobo has denied being a friend of the Chinese businessmen even though Guan Jiang Guang claims such a friendship exists and an Al Jazeera documentary on rhino poaching shows the two together.

Save the Rhino and other conservation NGOs have welcomed the overall fall in South Africa, but are opposed to the South African government’s draft legislation which would allow a domestic trade in rhino horn to resume. The trade was suspended by a government-imposed moratorium in 2009, which was successfully challenged in the courts by private rhino owners.

Under the new law, the government’s hacked together response to the court decision, a foreign citizen visiting South Africa could get a permit to export a maximum of two rhinos per year (or their horns), meaning the already overstretched South African wildlife authorities would be required to police both a legal and illegal trade.

This has huge potential for laundering poached horns and for a new form of what was once called pseudo-hunting, when non-hunters from Vietnam and Thailand paid to shoot rhinos and export the ‘legal’ trophy. However, the proposed legislation seems to have few safeguards and many private rhino owners have welcomed the move. But it doesn’t address the many complex problems relating to whether creating a regulated, legal trade in horn from dehorned rhinos, legal stocks and horn from natural mortality would help to stop poaching by opening up a legal, alternative supply.

Rhino owners and some conservationists, like David Cook (formerly director of the Natal Parks Board, and Hluhluwe-Imfolozi senior ranger) and John Hanks (former director of WWF’s Africa programme), favour an internationally regulated, legal trade that would supply demand through the provision of non-lethal horn. Such a system needs strong safeguards and monitoring procedures that are neither in place nor addressed in the rushed draft legislation.

South Africa’s government has a reputation for corruption at the highest levels of the ruling party, ministries and state institutions (including the police), so the hasty creation of a poorly-monitored legal trade does not amount to a regulated, well thought-out means of destroying the monopoly of the smugglers, or of using a regulated trade in non-lethal horn to undercut the illegal trade, reduce poaching significantly and produce income for sustainable conservation. Falling between the two stools of a total ban and a properly-policed legal trade, the new legislation looks like a new rhino disaster waiting to happen.

Professor Keith Somerville is a senior research fellow at the Institute of Commonwealth Studies at the School of Advanced Study, University of London. He is also research associate at the Marjan Centre for the Study of War and the Non-Human Sphere at King’s College, London and a member of the Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology at the University of Kent. His latest publications are Ivory: Power and Poaching in Africa and Africa’s Long Road Since Independence: The Many Histories of a Continent.