African leadership prize fails to find a winner – again
Sudanese-born telecommunications entrepreneur Mo Ibrahim addresses participants at the Ibrahim Index of African Governance in Addis Ababa, file. REUTERS/Irada Humbatova
JOHANNESBURG Sudanese telecoms magnate Mo Ibrahim failed to award a $5 million African political leadership prize on Tuesday, the second year running the gong designed to foster regional democracy has gone begging due to a lack of suitable candidates.
Since its launch in 2006, the Ibrahim Prize has only been awarded four times – to Mozambique’s Joaquim Chissano, Botswana’s Festus Mogae, Cape Verde’s Pedro De Verona Rodrigues Pires and Namibia’s Hifikepunye Pohamba in 2014.
Candidates have to be democratically elected African heads of state or government who have left office in the previous three years at the end of their constitutional terms.gerontocrats, a peaceful departure after years of plunder does not guarantee the prize as the hopeful’s record while in office is also considered.
“The Prize is intended to highlight and celebrate truly exceptional leadership, which is uncommon by its very definition,” prize committee chairman Salim Ahmed Salim said in a statement accompanying the 2016 non-award.
The prize is meant to set the winner up for life, with $5 million paid out over 10 years followed by a $200,000-a-year pension. However, it does not appear to be gaining much traction with Africa’s ruling elite.
Congo Republic’s Denis Sassou Nguesso and Rwanda’s Paul Kagame have recently pushed through changes to their respective constitutions to extend their stays in power, while Democratic Republic of Congo’s Joseph Kabila has gone nowhere since his mandate expired in December.
One surprise late entry could have been eccentric Gambian autocrat Yahyah Jammeh, who stunned his 1.8 million countrymen – and most of the rest of Africa – when he accepted defeat in a December election after 22 years in charge.
However, he then changed his mind and only left power a month later after an invasion by thousands of Senegalese, Ghanaian and Nigerian troops.
(KHARTOUM) – Sudanese President Omer al-Bashir has ruled out the direct involvement of the Egyptian arm in South Sudan’s conflict but said Cairo provided President Salva Kiir with weapons and ammunition.
Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi (Photo Reuters)
Speaking to reporters aboard the plane returning to Khartoum from Abu Dhabi on Tuesday, al-Bashir denied that Egypt had conducted any air attacks on the positions of the SPLM-In-Opposition in Kaka town of Upper Nile state, as it was claimed by the rebels on 3 February.
However “We have intelligence that they supported the South Sudanese government, and continue to support the government with arms and ammunition,” he disclosed in his answer to a question from a journalist.
“But I do not expect to fight in the South Sudan,” he further said.
Last January President Salva Kiir visited Cairo where he held talks with President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi and Egyptian officials.
At the time, officials in Juba said the purpose of the visit was to thank Egypt for its diplomatic support to Juba government at the level of the United Nations Security Council.
Sudan as the rest of the IGAD countries including Uganda vowed to not support the warring parties in South Sudan’s festering conflict. They also agreed to keep the former Frist Vice-President Riek Machar out of the region.
Also, Washington called to impose an arms embargo on South Sudan, pointing to UN reports about “strong risk of violence escalating along ethnic lines with a potential for genocide”.
The United Nations has declared a famine in parts of South Sudan, the first to be announced anywhere in the world in six years. There have also been warnings of famine in north-east Nigeria, Somalia and Yemen. Why are there still famines and what can be done about it?
What is happening in South Sudan?
UN agencies say 100,000 people are facing starvation in South Sudan and a further 1 million there are classified as being on the brink of famine. This is the most acute of the present food emergencies. It is also the most widespread nationally. Overall, says the UN, 4.9 million people – or 40% of South Sudan’s population – are “in need of urgent food, agriculture and nutrition assistance”.
“Many families have exhausted every means they have to survive,” says the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization representative in South Sudan, Serge Tissot.
The basic cause of the famine is conflict. The country has now been at war since 2013 and more than 3 million people have been forced to flee their homes.
As World Food Programme country director Joyce Luma says: “This famine is man-made.”
“The people are predominantly farmers and war has disrupted agriculture. They’ve lost their livestock, even their farming tools. For months there has been a total reliance on whatever plants they can find and fish they can catch,” says Mr Tissot.
Crop production has been severely curtailed by the conflict, even in previously stable and fertile areas, as a long-running dispute among political leaders has escalated into a violent competition for power and resources among different ethnic groups.
As crop production has fallen and livestock have died, so inflation has soared (by up to 800% year-on-year, says the UN) causing massive price rises for basic foodstuffs.
This economic collapse would not have happened without war.
What does the declaration of famine mean?
The UN considers famine a technical term, to be used sparingly. The formal famine declaration in South Sudan means people there have already started dying of hunger.
More specifically, famine can be declared only when certain measures of mortality, malnutrition and hunger are met. These are:
at least 20% of households in an area face extreme food shortages with a limited ability to cope;
acute malnutrition rates exceed 30%;
and the death rate exceeds two persons per day per 10,000 persons.
Other factors that may be considered include large-scale displacement, widespread destitution, disease outbreaks and social collapse.
The declaration of a famine carries no binding obligations on the UN or anyone else, but does bring global attention to the problem.
Previous famines include southern Somalia in 2011, southern Sudan in 2008, Gode in the Somali region of Ethiopia in 2000, North Korea (1996), Somalia (1991-1992) and Ethiopia in 1984-1985.
The possibility of three further famine declarations in Nigeria, Somali and Yemen would be an unprecedented situation in modern times.
“We have never seen that before and with all of these crises, they are protracted situations and they require significant financing,” World Food programme director of emergencies Denise Brown told the Guardian. “The international community has got to find a way of stepping up to manage this situation until political solutions are found.”
What can be done in South Sudan?
In the immediate term, two things would be necessary to halt and reverse the famine: More humanitarian assistance and unimpeded access for humanitarian agencies to those worst affected.
UN agencies speak of handing out millions of emergency livelihood kits, intended to help people fish or grow vegetables. There has also been a programme to vaccinate sheep and goats in an attempt to stem further livestock losses.
But, says Ms Luma, “we have also warned that there is only so much that humanitarian assistance can achieve in the absence of meaningful peace and security”.
The areas where a famine has been declared are in parts of Unity State seen as sympathetic to the rebels.
Some UN officials have suggested President Salva Kiir’s government has been blocking food aid to certain areas. There have also been reports of humanitarian convoys and warehouses coming under attack or being looted, either by government or rebel forces.
Although it denies the charges, President Kiir has now promised “that all humanitarian and development organisations have unimpeded access to needy populations across the country”.
But apart from that, there has been no indication that the huge suffering of civilians will prompt South Sudan’s warring parties to stop fighting.
Why are there food security crises elsewhere?
The common theme is conflict.
Yemen, north-east Nigeria and Somalia are all places where fighting has severely disrupted stability and normal life.
In Yemen, a multi-party civil conflict has drawn in regional powers, causing widespread destruction, economic damage and loss of life.
Nigeria and Somalia have faced insurgencies by extremist Islamist groups Boko Haram and al-Shabab, respectively, leading to large-scale displacement of people, disruption of agriculture and the collapse of normal trading and market activities.
In some cases, conflict has compounded pre-existing problems.
Yemen has long-standing water shortages and successive governments have been criticised for not doing more to conserve resources and improve the country’s ability to feed itself. (Even before the conflict started, nearly 90% of Yemen’s food had to be imported, Oxfam says.)
In other cases, shorter term climatic factors may be relevant.
South Sudan and Somalia have both been affected by a months-long drought across east Africa.
How is it different for more stable countries?
In Kenya, the government has declared a national disaster because of the drought and announced a compensation scheme for those who have lost livestock.
The Kenya Red Cross has been making cash payments, distributing food vouchers and aid and helping livestock owners sell off weakening animals before they die.
This kind of ameliorative action is much less possible or likely in countries riven by war.
UN assistant secretary general Justin Forsyth told the BBC: “Nobody should be dying of starvation in 2017. There is enough food in the world, we have enough capability in terms of the humanitarian community.
“In South Sudan, [the UN children’s agency] Unicef has 620 feeding centres for severely malnourished children, so the places where children are dying are places we can’t get to, or get to only occasionally. If there was access, we could save all of these children’s lives.”
February 20, 2017 (KHARTOUM) – The United Nations has contributed $21 million to the 2017 Sudan Humanitarian Fund (SHF) to help address growing humanitarian needs in Sudan.
In a statement extended to Sudan Tribune Monday, the UN said “the humanitarian challenges in Sudan are diverse and complex, including in Darfur where over 3 million people are estimated to be in need of humanitarian assistance”.
“Funds to the SHF for this allocation have been donated by the governments of Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom,” read the statement.
UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator in Sudan, Marta Ruedas, said the SHF “will continue to support the frontline responders in Sudan, the organisations working to provide relief every day, especially to the most vulnerable, such as women and children”.
The statement pointed that SHF plays a vital role in ensuring an effective, coordinated, prioritised and principled humanitarian response in Sudan.
“Since 2006, the SHF has received and granted over $1 billion to international and national NGOs, and UN agencies, funds and programmes, enabling these entities to provide relief to people in need,” it added
According to the statement, in 2016, the SHF allocated $38.8, which represented about eight percent of the overall funding available to humanitarian partners.
February 12, 2017 (KHARTOUM) – Sudanese police on Sunday has arrested several foreigners from some Arab countries after an explosion at a residential building where it uncovered base ingredients for fabricating a bomb.
Police official spokesperson Lt. Gen. Omer al-Mukhtar earlier Sunday stated that “police investigations are underway to find out the details and motives of the crime”.
Also Sky News TV, reported the police apprehended foreign Arab nationals and seized quantity of weapons and explosives.
In a statement on Sunday night, Sudanese police confirmed the explosion, saying a police officer who was stationed near the incident’s site informed the rescue police that he “heard a small blast at Arkawit suburb, south of Khartoum,”. The police underscored that it was later made certain that it came from one of the buildings in the area”.
The statement added that “police force backed by forensic and explosive specialists besides a dedicated team from the National Intelligence and Security Service was dispatched” to the incident’s scene, pointing the teams “stormed the apartment and found local materials used in making crude explosives and foreign passports”.
“The investigations revealed that a suspect began to make an explosive device but it detonated and caused him minor injury that forced him to seek treatment in a nearby hospital. [However] they refused to treat him without informing the police which made him leave without treatment,” read the statement.
The statement said that the police would resolve the case and captures the suspects within hours, stressing the seized materials are not highly explosive.
It is noteworthy that the police on Sunday morning has closed down a street in the 46th neighbourhood of Arkawit area and set up blocks 80 meters along the street and positioned its vehicles on both sides of the street.
Eyewitnesses told Sudan Tribune that police found explosives in an apartment at the residential building; saying one of them exploded on Sunday morning and hit one of the residents, where traces of blood were seen at the scene.
According to the eyewitnesses, the police evacuated large number of yellow paper bags containing holdings that have been collected from the apartment.
They pointed out that they heard gunshots at 2:00 am (local time), saying the area was then cordoned off by police with sniffer dogs.
The same eyewitnesses added that the four-story building includes a number of apartments inhabited by Arab nationals.
Khartoum has remained a safe place for foreign diplomats and organisations also there was no terrorist attacks on the Sudanese government institutions despite the regional troubles, its collaboration in the war against Daesh and involvement in the Yemeni war.
The last terrorist attack in Khartoum was in 1993 when the Palestinian Black September Organization carried out
February 6, 2017 (KHARTOUM) – Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) leader Malik Agar reiterated their readiness to discuss the U.S. proposal to deliver humanitarian assistance to civilians in the rebel-controlled areas in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states, stressing what they refuse is the control of the whole operation by the government.
in a bid to break the deadlock in the peace talks between the Sudanese government and SPLM-N, the former U.S. Special Envoy Donald Booth last November proposed that the USAID will deliver medical humanitarian aid to civilian in the rebel held areas by air directly after its inspection from the government.
The SPLM-N declined the proposal insisting on the need to transport 20% of the humanitarian aid directly from Ethiopian border town of Asosa to the rebel areas.
In an audio statement obtained by Sudan Tribune, Agar who was speaking last Saturday in the SPLM-Controlled areas in the Blue Nile said the SPLM-N didn’t reject the “Sudanese American proposal”, as he said.
The proposal provides that the USAID will deliver specific humanitarian assistance through an internal corridor to the United Nations workers in the SPLM areas, explained Agar in remarks delivered at a promotion ceremony for SPLA Second Division officers on Saturday.
“This gives the Sudanese government the upper hand in the (humanitarian) operation, and we should keep in mind the experience of UNAMID in Darfur,” he added.
The SPLM-N rejected the Sudanese government control of the humanitarian operation but didn’t decline the U.S. proposal or the proposal of the African Union mediation which provides to deliver the aid across Asosa town on the Ethiopian Sudanese border, he said.
The SPLM-N sticks to the direct delivery of 20% of humanitarian assistance through Ethiopia, pointing that the African Union High Level Implementation Panel (AUHIP) supports this idea.
Sources close to the file disclosed that the SPLM-N in its response to the U.S. proposal underscored that the safe humanitarian corridor through Asosa would enable the SPLM-N to transport its sick or wounded fighters for treatment from the land-locked controlled areas. Also this corridor enable the rebel leadership and delegates to reach the venue of peace talks and return to their bases for consultations, they said.
Sudanese government rejected Asosa corridor, saying it’s a violation of the state’s sovereignty and also allows the rebel to bring arms and ammunition from outside.
However, Agar called to not exclude Asosa corridor from the negotiating table stressing that there are “two proposals on the table, that one of the AUHIP and “the U.S. proposal with the proposed amendments’’.
“And we are ready to discuss the two proposals,” he said.
Recently it was reported that the AUHIP mediators filed new proposals for the negotiating parties, and it is expected to convene a meeting between the armed groups and a Sudanese committee tasked with the implementation of the national dialogue outcome.
But Agar denied being invited to resume talks with the government. Also, he said they are not concerned by the outcome of the government-led dialogue process but they call for an inclusive and comprehensive dialogue, and a preparatory meeting to discuss the creation of a conducive environment before this constitutional process, in line with the African Union Roadmap Agreement
He further said they expect that an invitation be extended by the AUHIP for a consolations-meeting.
He said the SPLM-N is ready for peace and war alike.
“The regime challenged us in the past and can challenge us again but we are ready to take up the challenge until the Sudanese get their full rights. We will not accept half-solutions and will not postpone the war for future generations,” he added.
South Sudan rebels accused Egypt on Saturday of carrying out bombing raids against their positions, drawing an immediate denial from Cairo, and warned of the risk of a regional war.
It was the first time either side had alleged Egyptian involvement in South Sudan’s festering conflict, which pits President Salva Kiir’s military against forces loyal to his former vice president, Riek Machar.
The Egyptian air force on Friday dropped “more than nine bombs and explosions on the gallant SPLA-IO positions” near the northern village of Kaka, a rebel statement said, using an acronym for the rebel force.
Egyptian foreign ministry spokesman Ahmed Abu Zeid denied the alleged air strikes, saying: “Egypt does not interfere in the internal affairs of other countries.”
South Sudan presidential spokesman Ateny Wek Ateny also denied Egypt had conducted any bombings in the country, describing the allegations as “nonsense.”
“Those small packets of rebels are … operating inside our population and we cannot bomb our own population,” he said.
War erupted in South Sudan in December 2013 after a political disagreement between Kiir and Machar exploded into military confrontation.
Under a peace deal, Machar returned to the capital Juba as vice president early last year. But tensions escalated between the two men, who hail from rival tribes, and fighting broke out again in Juba in July.
Intermittent clashes continue in several parts of the country. The conflict has often taken an ethnic hue, fuelling fears the world’s youngest nation could be plunged into a genocide on the scale of Rwanda’s in 1994.
In the statement, the rebels accused Kiir’s government of seeking to escalate the war. They said they repelled attacks by government forces in several places this week, including at three locations in Unity State, leaving “so many dead bodies”.
The statement said the rebels had captured nine soldiers after firefights, and destroyed four military vehicles.
“Egyptian participation in the ongoing war in South Sudan are clear indications to the people of South Sudan…that the Juba regime is provoking the region and tilting South Sudan for a regional war,” the statement said.
(Reporting by Denis Dumo in Juba; Aaron Maasho in Addis Ababa and Lin Noueihed in Cairo; writing by Elias Biryabarema; Editing by Mark Trevelyan)